Cryptorchidism – A Comprehensive Guide to Undescended Testicles in Males and its Impact on Fertility
Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testicles, is an abnormal condition that occurs during the development of the male reproductive system. In this disorder, one or both of the testicles fail to descend into the scrotum, the sac that hangs below the penis.
A normal development process involves the descent of the testes from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth. However, in cases of cryptorchidism, this process is disrupted, resulting in the testes staying in the abdomen or getting trapped along the path of descent.
The exact causes of cryptorchidism are not known, but it is believed to be a congenital disorder, meaning it is present at birth. Certain risk factors, such as premature birth, low birth weight, and a family history of cryptorchidism, may increase the likelihood of developing this condition. It is important to note that cryptorchidism can also be associated with other hormonal imbalances or genetic disorders.
Cryptorchidism can lead to several complications, including infertility, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of testicular cancer. It is important to diagnose and treat this condition as early as possible to prevent long-term consequences. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition and the age of the individual, but they usually involve hormonal therapy, surgical intervention, or a combination of both.
Cryptorchidism is a disorder characterized by the abnormal development of the testis, resulting in the undescended testis in the scrotum. This condition is also known as undescended testis.
Cryptorchidism can occur due to various factors, including hormonal abnormalities, genetic factors, and fetal development issues. In some cases, the testis fails to descend into the scrotum during development, leading to cryptorchidism.
The primary symptom of cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes in the scrotum. This can be detected during a physical examination. Other symptoms may include an empty scrotum, abnormal scrotal development, and potential fertility issues in adulthood.
It is important to diagnose cryptorchidism early, as it can lead to complications such as infertility, testicular cancer, torsion, and inguinal hernia.
The treatment for cryptorchidism typically involves the surgical repositioning of the undescended testis into the scrotum. This procedure is known as orchidopexy. It is usually performed before the age of two to optimize the chances of normal testicular development and prevent future complications.
In some cases, hormonal therapy may be used to stimulate testicular descent. However, surgery remains the most effective treatment option for cryptorchidism.
|Advantages of Treatment:
|Disadvantages/Risks of Treatment:
|– Improved testicular function
|– Surgical risks
|– Decreased risk of infertility
|– Potential complications
|– Lower risk of testicular cancer
|– Anesthesia-related risks
If left untreated, cryptorchidism can lead to long-term complications and affect the quality of life. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical attention if any signs or symptoms are observed.
Definition, Causes, and Symptoms
Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testicles, is a congenital disorder where one or both testicles fail to properly descend into the scrotum during fetal development. This abnormality is more commonly seen in male infants and may increase the risk of infertility and other complications in the future.
The exact cause of cryptorchidism is not fully understood. It is believed to be a combination of genetic and hormonal factors. Hormonal imbalances during fetal development can interfere with the normal descent of the testicles. Additionally, certain genetic conditions such as Klinefelter syndrome and Down syndrome have been associated with an increased incidence of cryptorchidism.
The main symptom of cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testicles in the scrotum. The undescended testicles can sometimes be palpated in the groin area or along the inguinal canal. Other symptoms may include testicular pain, swelling, or discomfort. If left untreated, cryptorchidism can lead to complications such as testicular torsion, inguinal hernia, and an increased risk of testicular cancer.
Types of Cryptorchidism
Cryptorchidism is a condition in which the testicles do not descend into the scrotum as part of normal development. There are two main types of cryptorchidism: bilateral and unilateral.
In bilateral cryptorchidism, both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. This is a more severe form of the condition and often leads to infertility if not treated. It is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and hormonal factors.
Unilateral cryptorchidism, on the other hand, involves only one undescended testicle. This is a less common form of the condition and may be caused by an abnormal development of the testis or its supporting structures. While unilateral cryptorchidism may not have as significant an impact on fertility as bilateral cryptorchidism, it still requires medical evaluation and treatment.
Cryptorchidism is a congenital abnormality, meaning it is present at birth. If left untreated, it can increase the risk of complications such as testicular tumors and infertility later in life. Early detection and treatment are crucial to prevent these potential issues.
Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testis, is a developmental abnormality in which one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. It is a congenital disorder that primarily affects male infants, with an estimated prevalence of 3-5%.
Possible Risk Factors
While the exact cause of cryptorchidism is unknown, several risk factors have been identified:
- Premature birth: Premature infants are more likely to have undescended testicles compared to full-term babies.
- Low birth weight: Babies who are born with a low birth weight are at a higher risk of having cryptorchidism.
- Family history: Having a close relative, such as a father or brother, with cryptorchidism increases the likelihood of developing the condition.
- Maternal factors: Certain maternal conditions, such as gestational diabetes and exposure to certain medications or chemicals during pregnancy, may contribute to the development of cryptorchidism in the fetus.
- Hormonal imbalances: Disruptions in hormone levels during fetal development can interfere with the normal descent of the testicles.
Complications and Long-Term Effects
If left untreated, cryptorchidism can lead to complications and long-term effects, including:
- Increased risk of testicular cancer: Undescended testicles have a higher risk of developing testicular cancer later in life.
- Infertility: Men with cryptorchidism are more likely to experience fertility problems due to abnormal testicular development and reduced sperm production.
- Torsion and injury: The undescended testicle may become twisted (torsion) or get injured more easily, causing pain and potential damage.
Early detection and treatment of cryptorchidism are essential to minimize the potential complications and improve long-term outcomes. If you suspect your child may have undescended testicles, consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation and management.
Complications Associated with Cryptorchidism
One of the main complications associated with cryptorchidism is infertility. Cryptorchidism refers to a congenital disorder where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. This abnormal condition, also known as an undescended testis, can greatly affect the fertility of a male individual.
When the testicles do not descend into the scrotum, the temperature of the testes can become too hot. This heat can inhibit or damage sperm production, leading to a decreased sperm count or complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate. As a result, untreated cryptorchidism can increase the risk of infertility in affected individuals.
In addition to infertility, cryptorchidism can also increase the risk of testicular cancer. Research has shown that males with untreated undescended testicles are at a higher risk of developing testicular cancer compared to those with normally descended testicles. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of cryptorchidism are crucial in reducing the risk of testicular cancer.
Furthermore, individuals with cryptorchidism may experience psychological and social complications. The abnormal appearance of undescended testicles can lead to feelings of embarrassment, low self-esteem, and body image issues. These emotional factors can have a negative impact on a person’s mental well-being and quality of life.
Overall, it is essential to recognize the potential complications associated with cryptorchidism. Prompt diagnosis, early intervention, and appropriate treatment can help mitigate the risks of infertility, testicular cancer, and psychological challenges faced by individuals with this disorder.
|Associated with Cryptorchidism
|Decreased sperm count or absence of sperm in ejaculate
|Increased risk compared to individuals with normally descended testicles
|Psychological and Social Complications
|Emotional impact, low self-esteem, body image issues
Diagnosis and Examination
Diagnosing cryptorchidism involves a thorough examination of the testicles to determine if they have fully descended into the scrotum. This condition is typically congenital, meaning it is present at birth.
During a physical examination, a healthcare provider will carefully palpate the scrotum to see if both testicles are present and can be felt within the scrotal sac. If one or both testicles cannot be palpated, further diagnostic tests may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
Imaging studies, such as ultrasound, can be used to locate an undescended testis within the abdomen or other abnormal locations. Ultrasound imaging can also help evaluate the structure and development of the testis and surrounding tissues.
In some cases, blood tests may be performed to assess hormone levels and determine if there are any underlying hormonal abnormalities affecting testicular descent.
It is important to diagnose cryptorchidism early, as undescended testicles can lead to long-term complications, including infertility and an increased risk of testicular cancer. Regular examination and monitoring of the testicles are crucial to identify any abnormal development and ensure appropriate treatment options are considered.
Medical Evaluation and Tests
Undescended testicles, also known as cryptorchidism, is a disorder that affects the normal development of the testis, resulting in the testicles failing to descend into the scrotum from the abdominal cavity.
When a child is born, it is important to assess the testicles for any signs of abnormal descent. The medical evaluation for cryptorchidism involves a physical examination of the scrotum and lower abdomen, with the aim of locating the undescended testicles. In some cases, the testicles may be palpable, while in others, they may not be easily felt.
If an undescended testicle is suspected, additional diagnostic tests may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the exact location of the testis. These may include:
- Ultrasound: This non-invasive imaging test uses sound waves to create images of the testicles. It can help visualize the position of the undescended testicle and evaluate the overall anatomy of the scrotum.
- Hormonal stimulation test: This test involves the injection of hormones to stimulate the testicles to descend. If the testicles do not respond to the hormonal stimulation, it indicates that there may be an underlying abnormality affecting their descent.
Based on the results of the medical evaluation and diagnostic tests, the healthcare provider will make a treatment decision. In most cases, surgical intervention is recommended to correct the undescended testicles. Surgery aims to move the testicles into the scrotum and secure them in position to ensure proper development and function.
If left untreated, undescended testicles can lead to potential complications such as infertility, testicular cancer, and inguinal hernia. Therefore, early detection and prompt medical intervention are crucial for managing this congenital disorder.
In conclusion, medical evaluation and diagnostic tests play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment planning for undescended testicles. By identifying the exact location and determining the underlying cause of the disorder, healthcare professionals can provide appropriate interventions to ensure optimal testicular development and function.
Treatment Options for Cryptorchidism
When it comes to treating cryptorchidism, there are several options available depending on the severity of the disorder. The main goal of treatment is to ensure that the undescended testis descends into the scrotum, allowing for proper development and function.
One common treatment option is hormone therapy, which involves the administration of hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). These hormones help stimulate the testicles to descend into the scrotum.
Another treatment option is surgical intervention. In cases where hormone therapy has not been successful or if the cryptorchidism is accompanied by other abnormalities, surgery may be necessary. Surgery involves making a small incision in the groin or lower abdomen and manually bringing the testis down into the scrotum.
In some cases, a combination of hormone therapy and surgery may be required to achieve the best outcome. This is often the case when the undescended testis is located higher up in the abdomen or if there are other complicating factors.
It’s important to note that early treatment of cryptorchidism is crucial to prevent potential complications. Leaving cryptorchidism untreated can lead to fertility issues later in life, as well as an increased risk of testicular cancer. Therefore, it’s important for parents to consult with a healthcare professional if they suspect their child may have an undescended testis.
Hormone therapy is a common treatment option for cryptorchidism, a disorder characterized by the abnormal development of the testicles, leading to undescended or partially descended testicles. This condition is often diagnosed during infancy or early childhood.
During normal development, the testicles form in the abdomen and gradually descend into the scrotum before birth. In the case of cryptorchidism, one or both testicles fail to fully descend into the scrotum, resulting in an undescended or partially descended condition.
Hormone therapy involves the use of hormones to stimulate the descent of the testicles. One hormone commonly used is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is similar to the hormone that stimulates the testicles to descend during fetal development.
Hormone therapy can be administered through injections or oral medications. Treatment duration varies depending on the age of the individual and the severity of the condition. The therapy aims to promote natural descent of the testicles and correct the abnormal development.
It is important to note that hormone therapy may not be effective for all cases of cryptorchidism. In some instances, surgical intervention may be necessary to correct the condition. The decision to pursue hormone therapy or surgery will depend on factors such as the age of the patient, the position of the undescended testicles, and the presence of any associated complications.
Hormone therapy is typically recommended as a first-line treatment for infants with cryptorchidism. Early intervention can help improve the chances of successful testicular descent and prevent potential complications. If left untreated, undescended testicles can increase the risk of infertility and other reproductive issues later in life.
In conclusion, hormone therapy is a valuable treatment option for individuals with cryptorchidism, a congenital disorder characterized by the abnormal development of the testicles. It helps stimulate the natural descent of the testicles and correct the undescended or partially descended condition. However, it is important to discuss the treatment options with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate course of action based on individual circumstances.
Surgical intervention is often required to treat cryptorchidism, a disorder characterized by the abnormal descent of the testicles. This congenital condition, which occurs in approximately 3% of full-term male infants, is the most common disorder of the male reproductive system in newborns.
The primary goal of surgical intervention is to bring the undescended testis into the scrotum, where it should be located. This procedure, known as orchidopexy, is typically performed before the child reaches the age of two to maximize the chances of successful testicular descent and prevent any associated complications.
There are different surgical techniques available for the treatment of cryptorchidism, which vary depending on the individual case and surgeon’s preference. The two main approaches are:
- Open Surgery: This involves making an incision in the groin or scrotum to access the testicle. The surgeon will then loosen any structures that are preventing the testis from descending and position it within the scrotum. This approach may be necessary for cases where the testis is located high in the abdomen or within the inguinal canal.
- Laparoscopic Surgery: This is a minimally invasive procedure performed using a tiny camera and specialized instruments. The surgeon makes small incisions in the abdomen and inserts the camera to locate and bring down the testicles. Laparoscopic surgery is preferred in cases where the testis cannot be felt manually or if there are concerns about the testis’s blood supply.
The choice of surgical technique depends on factors such as the age of the patient, the location of the undescended testicle, and the surgeon’s expertise.
Benefits and Risks
Surgical intervention is highly effective in treating cryptorchidism and can help prevent complications associated with undescended testicles. Successful orchidopexy improves the chances of normal testicular function, reduces the risk of testicular cancer, and minimizes the likelihood of infertility later in life.
However, like any surgical procedure, orchidopexy carries some risks. These may include infection, bleeding, damage to the testicle or surrounding structures, and anesthesia-related complications. It is essential to discuss the benefits and potential risks with a healthcare professional before proceeding with surgical intervention.
Regular follow-up visits are necessary after surgery to monitor the progress and ensure the testicle remains properly positioned in the scrotum.
Surgical intervention is a vital component in the management of cryptorchidism. Early treatment is crucial to maximize the chances of successful testicular descent and minimize the long-term consequences associated with undescended testicles.
The orchiopexy procedure is a surgical intervention used to correct the disorder known as cryptorchidism, where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum properly. This condition is also commonly referred to as an undescended testis.
Cryptorchidism is a congenital abnormality that is often diagnosed shortly after birth. If left untreated, it can lead to potential complications such as infertility and an increased risk of testicular cancer later in life.
The orchiopexy procedure involves surgically moving the undescended testicle(s) from its abnormal position in the abdomen or groin to the scrotum. This is done to correct the position of the testicles and promote proper testicular descent.
During the orchiopexy procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision in the groin or lower abdomen. The undescended testicle is then located, freed from any surrounding tissue, and carefully brought down into the scrotum.
In some cases, the surgeon may use laparoscopic techniques, in which small incisions are made and a tiny camera is inserted to guide the procedure. This minimally invasive approach can result in less scarring and a quicker recovery time.
Recovery and Outlook
After the orchiopexy procedure, it is important for the patient to take care of the surgical site and follow any post-operative instructions provided by the surgeon. Pain medication may be prescribed to manage discomfort during the healing process.
The success rate of orchiopexy is generally high, with most patients experiencing a successful descent of the testicles into the scrotum. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are important to monitor the progress and ensure there are no complications.
Overall, the orchiopexy procedure is a safe and effective treatment for cryptorchidism, helping to prevent future complications and promote reproductive health.
Preparation for Surgery
Before undergoing surgery for cryptorchidism, it is important to properly prepare for the procedure. Here are some key aspects of preparation:
1. Development of Undescended Testicles: Cryptorchidism is a congenital disorder in which one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. This condition requires surgical intervention to correct the abnormal descent.
2. Understanding the Risks: It is crucial to be aware of the potential risks associated with the surgery, such as bleeding, infection, and anesthesia-related complications. Discuss these risks with your healthcare provider before making a decision.
3. Consultation with a Specialist: Seek a consultation with a pediatric urologist or a specialized surgeon who has experience in treating cryptorchidism. They will evaluate the specific case and determine the most appropriate surgical approach.
4. Preoperative Instructions: Your healthcare provider will provide detailed instructions regarding what you should and should not do before the surgery. This may include fasting before the procedure and avoiding certain medications.
5. Anesthesia: The surgery typically requires general anesthesia, which means that you will be asleep during the procedure. Your healthcare provider will explain the anesthesia process and answer any questions you may have.
6. Psychological Preparation: Being prepared mentally and emotionally is important for both the patient and their parents or guardians. Understand the reasons for the surgery and the potential long-term consequences, such as infertility, if left untreated.
7. Aftercare Plans: It is essential to discuss the post-surgery aftercare plans with your healthcare provider. This may include pain management, wound care, and follow-up appointments to monitor the progress of the testicular descent.
By adequately preparing for cryptorchidism surgery, you can ensure a smoother and more successful recovery process. Follow all instructions provided by your healthcare team to maximize the chances of a positive outcome.
Post-surgery Care and Recovery
After undergoing surgery for cryptorchidism, it is crucial to provide proper care and support during the recovery phase. This will help ensure a smooth healing process and reduce the risk of complications.
1. Incision Care: It is essential to keep the incision clean and dry to prevent infection. Follow the surgeon’s instructions regarding wound care, such as gently cleaning the area with mild soap and water and covering it with a sterile dressing. Monitor the incision site for any signs of redness, swelling, or discharge, and report any abnormalities to the healthcare provider immediately.
2. Rest and Recovery: During the initial days after surgery, it is recommended to take sufficient rest and avoid strenuous activities that may strain the surgical site. Follow the surgeon’s instructions regarding physical activity restrictions, which may include refraining from heavy lifting or vigorous exercise for a specific period.
Diet and Hydration:
Ensure a balanced diet rich in essential nutrients to support the healing process. Adequate hydration is also important for overall recovery. Drinking plenty of water and avoiding excessive caffeine or carbonated beverages can help in maintaining proper hydration levels.
Regular follow-up appointments with the healthcare provider are crucial to monitor the progress of recovery and assess any potential complications. The healthcare provider may perform physical examinations and order additional tests to evaluate the functionality and development of the descended testicle(s). It is important to attend these appointments as scheduled and discuss any concerns or symptoms experienced during the recovery period.
Long-term Outlook: In most cases, surgery for cryptorchidism successfully resolves the condition and allows for normal testicular development and function. However, it is important to note that undescended testicles can increase the risk of infertility and other reproductive disorders later in life. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor the long-term health and development of the testicles.
Long-term Outlook and Prognosis
Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testis, is a congenital disorder where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. This abnormal development can have long-term consequences for affected individuals.
If left untreated, cryptorchidism can lead to various complications, including infertility and an increased risk of testicular cancer. Undescended testicles are more susceptible to torsion, a condition where the testicle twists on its blood supply, leading to severe pain and potential damage to the testicle.
Fortunately, early diagnosis and treatment of cryptorchidism greatly improve the long-term outlook for affected individuals. The standard treatment for undescended testicles is surgery, called orchidopexy, which involves lowering the testicles into the scrotum and securing them in place.
Impact on Fertility
By addressing cryptorchidism early on, the risk of infertility can be significantly reduced. Undescended testicles often have impaired sperm production and function, leading to difficulties in achieving pregnancy. Orchidopexy increases the likelihood of normal testicular development and improves the chances of natural conception.
However, if cryptorchidism is not treated in a timely manner, it can result in irreversible damage to the testicles and permanent infertility. Therefore, it is essential for parents and healthcare providers to be vigilant in monitoring testicular descent and seeking treatment if necessary.
Reducing the Risk of Testicular Cancer
Research has shown an increased risk of testicular cancer in individuals with a history of cryptorchidism. The exact relationship between undescended testicles and testicular cancer is not fully understood, but it is believed that abnormal testicular development and hormonal imbalances play a role.
Early treatment of cryptorchidism through orchidopexy can potentially reduce the risk of testicular cancer later in life. By placing the testicles in the scrotum, normal testicular development and function can be promoted, decreasing the chances of malignant transformation and the need for more invasive treatments.
In conclusion, the long-term outlook for individuals with cryptorchidism is greatly improved through early diagnosis and treatment. Orchidopexy helps in achieving normal testicular development, reducing the risk of infertility and testicular cancer. It is crucial to monitor testicular descent and seek medical attention if any concerns arise to ensure the best possible outcomes for affected individuals.
Prevention of Cryptorchidism
Cryptorchidism is a disorder where one or both testicles fail to properly descend into the scrotum during fetal development. This condition is also known as undescended testicles and is a common congenital abnormality in newborns. If left untreated, cryptorchidism can lead to complications such as infertility and an increased risk of testicular cancer.
While the exact cause of cryptorchidism is unknown, there are several factors that may contribute to its development. These include genetic predisposition, hormonal imbalances, and certain maternal factors such as smoking during pregnancy. While it is not always possible to prevent cryptorchidism, there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of this disorder.
One of the key prevention strategies for cryptorchidism is to avoid exposure to environmental factors that may disrupt the normal development of the testicles. This includes avoiding exposure to certain chemicals and toxins, such as pesticides and industrial pollutants, during pregnancy. Pregnant women should also be cautious about smoking and alcohol consumption, as these habits have been associated with an increased risk of cryptorchidism.
In addition to environmental factors, proper prenatal care is also essential in preventing cryptorchidism. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify any potential issues early on and allow for appropriate interventions. It is also important for healthcare providers to educate parents about the importance of monitoring the development of their child’s testicles and seeking medical attention if any abnormalities are observed.
In some cases, medical intervention may be necessary to treat cryptorchidism. This can include hormone therapy to stimulate testicular descent or surgery to move the undescended testicle into the scrotum. However, prevention is always preferable to treatment, and taking the necessary precautions can help reduce the risk of this condition.
|– Cryptorchidism is a disorder where one or both testicles fail to properly descend into the scrotum during fetal development.
|– Prevention strategies include avoiding exposure to environmental factors that may disrupt testicular development and receiving proper prenatal care.
|– Medical intervention may be necessary in some cases, but prevention is always preferable to treatment.
FAQs about Cryptorchidism
Cryptorchidism, also known as undescended testis, is a disorder in which one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. Here are some frequently asked questions about cryptorchidism:
1. What causes cryptorchidism?
The exact cause of cryptorchidism is unknown, but it is believed to be due to abnormal development of the testicles during fetal development. Hormonal imbalances and genetic factors may also play a role.
2. Can cryptorchidism be detected at birth?
Yes, cryptorchidism can usually be detected at birth through a physical examination. If both testicles are undescended, it is known as bilateral cryptorchidism.
3. Is cryptorchidism a common condition?
Cryptorchidism is a relatively common condition, affecting about 3-5% of full-term male infants. The prevalence is higher in premature infants.
4. What are the potential complications of cryptorchidism?
Untreated cryptorchidism can lead to several complications including infertility, increased risk of testicular cancer, hernia, and inguinal torsion (twisting of the testicles).
5. Can cryptorchidism be treated?
Yes, cryptorchidism can be treated. The most common treatment option is surgery, called orchidopexy, to bring the undescended testicle(s) into the scrotum. Early treatment is recommended to prevent potential complications.
- 6. At what age should cryptorchidism be treated?
- 7. Are there any non-surgical treatment options for cryptorchidism?
- 8. Does cryptorchidism always require treatment?
- 9. Can cryptorchidism be prevented?
- 10. Is fertility affected by cryptorchidism?
It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment options for cryptorchidism.
References and Sources
Here are some references and sources that were consulted to gather information regarding cryptorchidism:
|Barthold, J.S. (2018). Undescended Testicles (Cryptorchidism). Urology Care Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/undescended-testicles-(cryptorchidism)
|Waxman, A.J., & Lambert, S.M. (2020). Cryptorchidism (Undescended Testis). StatPearls. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546652/
|Pinto, K., & Cheville, J.C. (2019). The Pathology of Cryptorchidism. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.archivesofpathology.org/doi/full/10.5858/arpa.2019-0083-RA
|Hadziselimovic, F., & Hoecht, B. (2013). Testicular histology related to fertility outcome and postpubertal hormone status in cryptorchidism. Sexual Development. Retrieved from https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/345606
|Borgmann, V., et al. (2018). Environmental factors associated with the risk of cryptorchidism: an interim analysis. Urologia Internationalis. Retrieved from https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/488982
These references and sources provide valuable information on the development, congenital nature, and treatment of cryptorchidism, as well as the impact of this disorder on testicular descent, abnormal testis development, and potential infertility.
What is cryptorchidism?
Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum.
What are the causes of cryptorchidism?
The exact cause of cryptorchidism is unknown, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and hormonal factors.
What are the symptoms of cryptorchidism?
The main symptom of cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testicles in the scrotum. Other symptoms may include a small or underdeveloped scrotum and fertility issues later in life.
Is cryptorchidism a common condition?
Cryptorchidism is one of the most common birth defects in male infants, affecting about 3% of full-term and 30% of premature male infants.
How is cryptorchidism treated?
Treatment for cryptorchidism usually involves surgery to bring the undescended testicle(s) into the scrotum. This procedure, called orchiopexy, is typically performed between the ages of 6 months and 2 years.
What is cryptorchidism?
Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum.